Anthocleista is a genus of tree- and shrub-like tropical plants in the gentian family , tribe Potalieae , subtribe Potaliinae. There are about 50 species in the genus, native mainly to tropical Africa , including Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands. Anthocleista was once placed in the family Loganiaceae , but more recent molecular, morphological, and phytochemical evidence has placed the group well within the Gentianaceae. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , related reading or external links , but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.
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Anthocleista nobilis Loganiaceae is used by Mbano people of Imo State, Nigeria, for the treatment of various ailments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of the methanol extract, fractions, and subfractions of A.
The powdered stem bark was extracted with methanol and sequentially fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. The constituents of the fractions were analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography HPLC , and the components were identified by dereplication.
Antioxidant potential of the extracts and fractions was investigated using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging method. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract and fractions were also investigated using xylene-induced inflammation and acetic acid-induced writhing models, respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction and subfraction elicited the best anti-inflammatory activity. The extract, fractions and subfractions of Anthocleista nobilis were screened or antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and Analgesic properties in vitro and in mice models.
Some of the components were identified by dereplication after HPLC analysis. The results demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of the extracts and fractions. The dereplication analysis also identified vitexin and related compounds.
Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of several human diseases including inflammatory conditions, neurological disorders, cardiovascular complications, and cancers among other ailments. Management of pains and inflammatory-mediated diseases with conventional therapeutic agents has not always produced the most desired result because of the numerous adverse effects such as gastric erosion and liver toxicity associated with some of the agents.
Following the limitations posed by existing and mostly synthetic agents, the search for alternative therapies from natural sources including medicinal plants has received greater attention recently.
Anthocleista nobilis G. Don belonging to the family Loganiaceae , is a small to medium-sized tree growing up to m tall. It is commonly found in tropical African habitats such as the Mascarene Islands and Madagascar as well as Southern, Western, and Eastern part of Nigeria. The bark is smooth and pale grey. The inner bark is cream-yellow and granular, whereas the twig has 2 spines above the leaf axis.
The leaves are opposite, crowded at the end of branches, and petiole is 1—6 cm long. It is commonly called candelarum, cabbage tree, cabbage palm, or palma christi in English language. It is also locally known as Uko nkirisi in Igbo language. Conventionally, A. It is also used as strong purgative, diuretic, and as poultice for treating sores in parts of West Africa. Its root decoction is usually taken to regulate menstruation and also as an abortifacient. In Mbano community in Imo State, Nigeria, the root bark decoctions are mostly used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, gastrointestinal worms, malaria, and jaundice.
The studies had shown that the root bark of A. We also report for the first time the identification of Vitexin and it is derivatives in the stem bark of A. All laboratory reagents were freshly prepared when required.
Stem barks of A. They were identified and authenticated by Mrs. A voucher specimen PHC was deposited in the herbarium of the same Department for reference purposes. They were allowed free access to food Guinea feeds Nigeria Ltd and water ad libitum. All animal experiments were conducted in compliance with NIH guide for care and use of laboratory animals National Institute of Health pub No: Air-dried stem bark of A.
Exactly g of the pulverized stem bark was macerated in methanol with intermittent shaking for 72 h. The extract was removed every 12 h and fresh solvent introduced.
At the end of 72 h, the extracts were pooled together, strained through muslin cloth, and filtered with filter paper Whatman No. The methanol extract of A. All the fractions obtained were filtered using Whatman No.
The fractions were all subjected to bioactivity testing and high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC analysis. Based on the result of the bioactivity testing of the fractions, ethyl acetate fraction 1. The ethyl acetate fraction 1. The sample was gradually eluted with mobile phase in increasing order of polarity from nonpolar to polar solvents. Different fractions were collected and concentrated using rotary evaporator.
Each of the dried crude extract and fractions 2 mg was dissolved 2 mL of HPLC grade methanol and the mixture was centrifuged at rpm for 5 min. Detection was at , , , and nm. Compounds were detected using diode array and identified based on similarity with data in the inbuilt library. The DPPH free-radical scavenging activities of the extract, fractions, and ethyl acetate chromatographic fractions of A. Half milliliter 0. The volume of the solution was adjusted with methanol to a final volume of 5 mL.
The mixture was incubated in the dark for 30 min at room temperature and absorbance of the mixtures was obtained at nm using VIS spectrophotometer Model , China. All the tests were performed in duplicate and ascorbic acid was used as standard. The absorbance of the control containing 0. The percentage radical scavenging potentials of the extracts, fractions and standard ascorbic acid were calculated using the equation below. The effect of the extract on xylene-induced acute topical inflammation was evaluated with modification of the method adopted by Atta and Alkohafi.
Two hours after induction of inflammation, the mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and sections of both right and left ears were punched out with the aid of circular cork borer 4 mm diameter and were weighed with the aid of analytical weighing balance Ohaus, China.
Edema was quantified as the weight difference between the two earplugs. Similar method and procedure above were used in the screening of the anti-inflammatory activity of various ethyl acetate chromatographic fractions from ethyl acetate main fractions.
This study was carried out using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing reflex pain model as described by Smahane et al. P to all the mice to induce pain.
The pain responses by animals characterized by abdominal writhing was counted were recorded and analgesic activity was calculated using the following equation;. IC 50 of the extracts and fractions were calculated from the graph of regression equation using Microsoft Excel, High-pressure liquid chromatography chromatogram of methanol extract and ultraviolet chromatogram showing the presence of isovitexin fraction and ultraviolet chromatogram of triterpene acetate.
C: p-Hydroxybenzoic acid; D: Sarasinside L. High-pressure liquid chromatography chromatogram of ethyl acetate fraction AC3 and ultraviolet chromatogram of triterpene acetate. E: Peak 4. High-pressure liquid chromatography chromatogram of butanol fraction and ultraviolet chromatogram of apigenin monoglycoside.
All the samples tested showed radical scavenging activity against DPPH. Ethyl acetate fraction showed moderate antioxidant activity compared to the other fraction. However, when compared with the standard ascorbic acid IC 50 Result of 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl scavenging activity of extract and various fractions of Anthocleista nobilis. Result of 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl scavenging activity of ethyl acetate chromatographic fractions of Anthocleista nobilis.
Effect of methanol extract and fractions of Anthocleista nobilis on xylene-induced topical inflammation. Subfraction AV9 showed the highest activity by decreasing ear edema by Effect of ethyl acetate chromatographic fraction of Anthocleista nobilis on xylene-induced topical inflammation. At the same doses, the activities of the extract and ethyl acetate fractions were comparable to diclofenac sodium. Effects of methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Anthocleista nobilis on acetic acid-induced writhing reflex of on mice.
Table 6 shows the effect of the ethyl acetate chromatographic fraction on acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium caused inhibition of Effect of ethyl acetate chromatographic fraction on acetic acid-induced writhing reflex. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and pain are closely associated processes that can be simultaneously present in many pathological conditions. Findings from this experiment revealed that A. A research carried out by Liu and Jan[ 19 ] revealed that isovitexin protected DNA from the Fenton reaction-induced breakage in a dose-dependent manner.
P-hydroxybenzoic acid identified from the n-hexane fraction is a phenolic derivative of benzoic acid. Several biological activities of this compound have been reported. Merkl et al. From its intensity and peak area, it is clear that peak 4 is the major compound in the extract.
The ethyl acetate fraction and its subfractions showed appreciable activity in all the tests carried out. Comparing the intensities of peak 4 in n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions, the intensity of this peak is greater in ethyl acetate fraction mAU than n-hexane fraction mAU.
This suggests that peak 4 could have contributed to why ethyl acetate fraction gave the best activities among the fractions. Dereplication analysis identified peak 4 as triterpene acetate with hit of which is below , the acceptable minimum. Further purification and spectroscopic experiment would be required to elucidate the structure and identity of peak 4.
DPPH, a stable free radical, can accept an electron or hydrogen to become a stable molecule, and it can also be used as a substrate to evaluate the antioxidant activity of compounds.
Polyphenolic compounds, such as flavonoid and phenolic acids, which are mostly found in plants have been reported for their biological activities, including antioxidant activity. Interestingly, the components of the crude extract and fractions of A. Xylene, a phlogistic agent is a useful tool in the assessment of acute inflammation. Topical application of xylene causes irritation of the living tissues, thereby leading to fluid accumulation and edema.
This activity was, however, not exhibited in a dose-dependent manner.
Anthocleista nobilis Loganiaceae is used by Mbano people of Imo State, Nigeria, for the treatment of various ailments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of the methanol extract, fractions, and subfractions of A. The powdered stem bark was extracted with methanol and sequentially fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. The constituents of the fractions were analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography HPLC , and the components were identified by dereplication.