What does Archizoom's No-Stop city mean the cities of today? Archizoom has specifically been relevant because though my early research I was trying to understand how to describe the generic nature of cities and articulate some understanding of why. They use the tools and ideas of modernism to then critique it. Pier Vittorio Aureli hints at the first one many times in his writings about capitalism and architecture. That is a capitalist principle at its core, yet architecture design, architecture process, and every aspect of society has embraced it while seemingly attempting to question the impacts of capitalism within our society. I think by making these ties between Aureli and Archizoom it is clear that something within architecture discourse on its role within the city is no adding up.
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But ernism in the s and s. Some fifteen years ago, program this was by no means a wholesale rejection of modernism. If there returned to the fore as two new positions emerged: the hybrid— was a drive to the future, it consciously styled itself Neo-Futurist. Even as they cede the ground entirely by advocating a programmatic inde- the neo-avant-garde rejected the increasingly obsolete modernism, terminacy.
Both first modernist moment. The microcomputer, telecommunications, and similarity between the s and the present day. During the offering only the perverse satisfaction of giving form to the form- first twenty years of the postwar era, the Fordist regime of big busi- less. Program, now thoroughly humbled, is in even worse shape; ness, big government, mass production, limited consumer choice, activities within contemporary spaces are increasingly determined rationalized consumption patterns, and Keynesian fiscal policy had not through program but through programming, through the algo- successfully generated a long, sustained economic boom that, by rithms that run within them or by the legislative and economic the mids, seemed inexhaustible to many.
Emerging at the codes that determine what can transpire in them. The programmatic indeterminacy of the generic, mean- cal gadgetry the product of a faith in technology that accompanied while, offers little more than a capitulation to this condition. And yet their appeal to the young, hip consumer In an effort to better understand—indeed to get beyond—this was also inspired by a realization that the production-oriented contemporary condition, I want to focus on the moment of its Fordist approach would be incapable of exceeding a certain level of instantiation, in particular, the sociocultural and technological economic growth.
So long as thrift, utility, and responsibility were transformations of the mid- to lates and the radical propos- deeply engrained in the cultural mindset, consumption would be sati- als made in response by Archizoom Associati with their No-Stop ated and the velocity of money would remain steady. By the late City project of The counter-cultural youth movement that rejected mass society for parallel of our own day to the mids has been drawn before,5 what it envisioned as the free pursuit of desire.
It was the first moment in which architects and sumption and self-fulfillment rather than production and familial or other thinkers could grasp the transformative potential of the com- corporate obligation. They were not alone for long. In his book The puter and the global telecommunications grid. For this gener- rejection of conformity, and style as a means of rebellion. Unlike the discretely planned Fordist world, the programmed tent-like German pavilion. By , no less an establishment post-Fordist world exists under constant modulation.
Nevertheless, late growth for an economy dominated by big, vertically-integrated cor- s radicals dismissed such solutions, together with the early porations. Instead, governments have replaced Keynesianism with sixties neo-avant-garde proposals, as overly optimistic about the the constant fine-tuning of monetarist policy as well as the encour- powers of technology and oppressive in their reliance on the top- agement of more entrepreneurially-structured multinationals.
So down plan. No longer do Among the radical critics of the late s, Italian Marxist advanced economies pursue the production of physical objects. Tafuri argues that Architecture, too, became subject to this epochal transformation. In North America, swept away by the reality of the Plan the moment the plan came architecture programs refigured themselves as environmental down from utopia and became an operant mechanism.
Instead of enrolling in architecture school, hippies began proposes that the architect must abandon any goals of changing building ad-hoc communes and dome villages. In his subsequent writings, Tafuri in a crisis, concluded Robert Geddes in a special report com- outlines three limited choices available for architects: ideology cri- missioned by the American Institute of Architects.
As with Italy as a the past. The at the hands of Fordist state planning, the Keynesian economic touristic focus on objects as producers of affect, the impossibility of plan was well on its way to being superseded by the programmed producing realizable architectural proposals, the new design spread- modulations of post-Fordism.
The result was Architettura backward condition that lay behind these explorations. In its relatively backward produc- in Pistoia in , the second in Modena in , exploring the tion, Italy could not aspire to Scandinavian or German rationalist, intersection of architecture and furniture in a heady atmosphere mass-produced modernism. Instead, design objects were largely informed by pop culture. Superarchitecture was inspired by the oriented toward a fashion-conscious luxury market, a market that Piper Club, a mod disco that operated in Rome beginning in , began as the neo-Liberty revival of Italian Art Nouveau but swiftly and that had many imitators throughout Italy.
The effect of the moved toward hip consumerism. Crucially, this nascent post-Fordist design was psychomotor liberation. In this sense the rather of young architects seeking opportunity when jobs in their political significance of the Pipers was evident as well. For Archizoom the gridded, horizontal No-Stop City was meant to replace the obso- lete model of the traditional, bounded city. For Archizoom and other members of Architettura Radicale, however, hip consumerism, with its quest for fashion, obsoles- cence, and flexibility, was anathema.
Superarchitecture accepts the logic of tings, biting dogs. Both proj- observing and its metaphorical messages getting in the way of any ects include a bleak, infinite grid of featureless structures extend- radical refoundation of human settlements.
If the Hochhausstadt, as K. Nor was this a question of merely using the repeated. When an exterior to No-Stop City was depicted, it was elite, occupying the marginal position staked out by postwar Italian included incidentally, proving that any exterior was arbitrary. This design when it turned to production of luxury objects. The city is non which has been objectively superseded.
In fact, no reality exists any mized society, the management of interests no longer needs to be longer outside the system itself: the whole visual relationship with organized on the spot where trade is to take place. The complete reality loses importance as the distance between the subject and penetrability and accessibility of the territory does away with the the phenomenon collapses. Initially, No- the total colonization of the world by capital and the consequent Stop City took the form of Homogeneous Living Diagrams, type- loss of the distinction between interior and exterior.
Mark Rothko, I see a picture dissolving into a single color. All are quantifiable data making up a city. But architecture has never confronted the drawings too threatening to architects to publish. This is why it has repeated field of gigantic structures, themselves nearly limitless, lagged behind…42 modeled on the supermarket and the factory.
Branzi later reflected on the plan: which is that of Programming. Both hypothesize a social and phys- ical reality completely continuous and undifferentiated. No other The idea that the architect is a person who expresses himself only realities exist. The factory and the supermarket become the spec- through his plans is stupidity. Today, industry and the metropolis imen models of the future city: optimal urban structures, poten- require different contributions than the simple plan, which always tially limitless, where human functions are arranged presupposes the quest for a formal, figurative solution to prob- spontaneously in a free field, made uniform by a system of micro- lems.
At the same time, it may also be that the problems do not acclimatization and optimal circulation of information. Inside it there exist no hier- Instead, architecture is free to pursue a new project—that Tafuri archies nor spatial figurations of a conditioning nature. Archizoom named the problem—that late capitalism tion of real property typical of traditional urban morphology: the has no use for the traditional bounded city and substitutes instead city became a continuous residential structure, devoid of gaps, a blank, limitless field, be it the physical terrain vague or the global and therefore of architectural images.
By the installation of a regu- telecommunications network—and allowed architects to under- lar grid of lifts, the great levels, theoretically infinite, whose stand how to go beyond the world of physical objects and enter into boundaries were of no interest whatsoever, could be laid out freely a collision of codes that marks the new transurban condition.
This in accordance with differences in function or new forms of social issue is of even greater consequence today. No-Stop City is now a aggregation. We can see this emerging in works such as ized to a discrete area of the gargantuan floorplate.
However a crucial differ- the kind of interior design, often ephemeral, deployed by firms such ence emerges. Tafuri believed the death would be punctual and as Lewis. Lewis, Neil M. Denari Architects, and servo.
In a later interview, Branzi recalled: an end condition as we cross the threshold toward a world domi- nated by virtuality and immaterial culture. How architects embrace All the most vital aspects of modern culture run directly toward this new territory and the new techniques for engaging it deter- that void, to regenerate themselves in another dimension, to free mines whether architecture dissipates in this immaterial century or themselves of their disciplinary chains.
When I look at a canvas by becomes one of its a central fields of research. January-April , reprinted in K. Michael Hays, ed. Two recent dissertations treat the emergence of these discourses in the acad- Theory Since Cambridge, Mass.
Cambridge, Mass. Press, April See also Lesley Jackson. The Sixties. Decade of Design Revolution London: 3. On the Life Without Objects. Milan: Skira, , as well as a number of the 4. See Felicity D.
Branzi takes pains to note that rary architectural discourse. See, for example, Charles Jencks, Architecture Branzi cites the influence of two projects in the show on Methods.
New York: Praeger, Business Culture, Counterculture, Life Without Objects, ry of a disciplinary modernity functioning through enclosures, planned environ-
No-stop City is an unbuilt project and documented in drawings. The drawings show an infinitely extending grid, subdivided by partial lines symbolizing walls, and interrupted only by natural features such as mountains. The photographs portray an endless and rather featureless space in which humans live as campers. Spaces are filled with rocks and branches, small pieces of nature brought inside the artificial world. Tents, appliances, and motorcycles show that basic needs are met, while other drawings show endless grids of bedrooms, perhaps containing the Dream Bed or Safari Chair. The No-stop City is an instrument of emancipation.
No-Stop City, 1969
Like other radical architecture groups of the s, it reacted against modernist architecture and downplayed practical concerns in favor of an imaginative, science-fiction-like approach. No-Stop City is based on the idea that advanced technology could eliminate the need for a centralized modern city. This plan illustrates a fragment of a metropolis that can be extended infinitely through the addition of homogenous elements adapted to a variety of uses. Residential units and free-form organic shapes representing parks are placed haphazardly over a grid structure, allowing for a large degree of freedom within a regulated system.
Archizoom, Andrea Branzi and the No-Stop City
Archizoom Associati was a design studio from Florence, Italy founded in The group that founded the studio consists of Andrea Branzi architect and designer , Gilberto Corretti architect and designer , Paolo Deganello architect and designer and Massimo Morozzi architect and designer ; later in the group was joined by Dario Bartolini designer and Lucia Bartolini designer. Archizoom organized his first exhibition called "Superarchitettura" in December along with the group Superstudio. The exhibition featured colorful projections and prototypes handled the concept of radical anti-design as dynamic sofa Superonda conception by Andrea Branzi produced by the company Poltronova.