BAKTERI DAN ARCHAEBACTERIA PDF

Archaebacteria are part of the prokaryotic organism family, which means they are tiny, single-celled organisms. According to the State University of New York, they are plentiful in water, air and on objects. There are three different types of archaebacteria, and all make their home in extreme environments. The University of Miami Department of Biology calls archaebacteria some of the oldest of all living things.

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Kami berharap bahwa Anda menikmati presentasi ini. Untuk men-download , silahkan rekomendasi presentasi ini kepada teman-teman Anda dalam jaringan sosial. Tombol yang haris diklik terletak di bawah posting ini. Terima kasih. Diterbitkan oleh Ivan Widjaja Telah diubah "4 tahun yang lalu. This kingdom is subdivided into two kingdoms: Archaebacteria Eubacteria.

Found in anaerobic conditions with high salt concentrations, high temperatures and a low pH. Eubacteria — This group includes the true bacteria and is the largest and most successful of the two kingdoms. Their DNA is not surrounded by a membrane.

The cytoplasm contains ribosomes, responsible for the formation of proteins and DNA. The DNA forms a single chromosome and forms a ring. Some bacteria have a flagella that act like propellers moving the organism forward. Bacteria are classified by their shape, reaction to being stained, nutrition and respiration.

Bacilli also exist as single cells, pairs diplobacilli , or chains streptobacilli. Spiral bacteria exist only as single cells. Staining bacteria results in two forms: gram-positive purple vs. This is diplococccus. This is Staphylococcus. Dinding Sel tersusun atas mukopolisakarida dan peptidoglikan protein dan polisakarida Sitoplasma tersusun atas air, asam nukleat, protein, karbohidrat, lemak.

Cth: Streptococcus mutans Pertahanan bakteri Flagellum Monotrik : flagellum pada bakteri berjumlah satu Lofotrik : flagella pada satu sisi Amfitrik : flagella atau flagellum di kedua ujung Peritrik : flagella tersebar di seluruh permukaan sel.

Cth: Chlorobium. Vakuola Gas terdapat pada bakteri yang hidup di air dan melakukan fotosintesis. Cth : Bacillus antracis, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium botulinum. Inang tempat hidup bakteri adalah tumbuhan, hewan atau manusia. Cth: Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bakteri Fotoautotrof bakteri yang menggunakan energi cahaya matahari untuk membuat makanannya. Cth: Thiocytstis sp.

Bakteri Kemoautotrof menggunakan energi kimia proses oksidasi senyawa anorganik untuk mensintesis makanannya. Cth: Nitrosomonas dan Nitrosococcus. Some are parasites, absorbing nutrients from living organisms. Others are saprobes, decomposing dead organic matter. Cth: Nitrosomonas, Nitrosoccus. Nitrosomonas : amonia — nitrit Nitrobacter : nitrit - nitrat.

Energi yang diperoleh bersumber dari fermentasi. Bakteri Anerob Obligat hanya dapat hidup jika tidak ada oksigen. Cth: Clostridium botulinum Bakteri Anaerob Fakultatif dapat hidup jika ada oksigen maupun tidak ada oksigen. Cth : Eschericia colli. If oxygen is absolutely necessary for survival they are called obligate aerobes.

Bacteria that carry out respiration without oxygen are called anaerobes. Presence of oxygen kills some bacteria and these are called obligate anaerobes. Peptidoglikan pada Dinding Sel Bakteri gram positif dinding sel dengan lap.

Cth: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, Vibrio cholerae Bakteri gram negatif dinding sel dengan lap. Cth: Streptococcus mutans, Eschericia coli. Genetically identical. Conjugation two bacteria join together and exchange portions of DNA. Ex: E. Transformation DNA is taken in by a bacterium, and then used. If bacteria have time, if the environmental changes are slow enough, they usually form endospores. Endospores are DNA and a small amount of cytoplasm enclosed in a tough cell wall.

They are resistant to extremes in temperature, drying, and harsh chemicals. Cells are identical to parents and should survive well if conditions don't change.

Disadvantages: Cells are identical to parents and so are vulnerable to the same environmental stresses. The characteristics of the cells change very slowly there is very little innovation in survival strategies. Unchanging cells may be slow to take advantage of new energy sources. They make methane natural gas as a waste product. They are found in swamp sediments, sewage, and in buried landfills. In the future, they could be used to produce methane as a byproduct of sewage treatment or landfill operation.

Large numbers of certain halophiles can turn these waters a dark pink. Pink halophiles contain a pigment very similar to the rhodopsin in the human retina.

They use this visual pigment for a type of photosynthesis that does not produce oxygen. Halophiles are aerobes. Most are photosynthetic autotrophs. The photosynthesizers in this category are purple because instead of using chlorophyll to photosynthesize, they use a similar pigment called bacteriorhodopsin that uses all light except for purple light, making the cells appear purple.

Pigmen ini menangkap cahaya. Some can grow above the boiling temperature of water. They are anaerobes, performing anaerobic respiration. Thermophiles are interesting because they contain genes for heat-stable enzymes that may be of great value in industry and medicine. An example is taq polymerase, the gene for which was isolated from a collection of Thermus aquaticus in a Yellowstone Park hot spring.

Annual sales of taq polymerase are roughly half a billion dollars. Berikan alasan mengapa Cyanobacteria dipisahkan dari bakteri.

Mengapa dalam klasifikasi sekarang Cyanobacteria dikelompokkan ke dalam bakteri? Plants use the nitrates and nitrites to make proteins. Parasitism — some bacteria are parasites. They live in a host and eventually overpopulate. For example, bacteria in your gut produce vitamin K which is essential to blood clot formation. Saprobes help to break down dead organic matter. Bacteria make up the base of the food web in many environments. Streptococcus thermophilus in yogurt.

In Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane of lipopolysaccharides prevents the stain from reaching the peptidoglycan layer. The outer membrane is then permeabilized by acetone treatment, and the pink safranin counterstain is trapped by the peptidoglycan layer.

Ethyl-alcohol solvent acts as a decolorizer and dissolves the lipid layer from gram-negative cells. This enhances leaching of the primary stain from the cells into the surrounding solvent. Ethyl-alcohol will dehydrate the thicker gram-positive cell walls, closing the pores as the cell wall shrinks.

For this reason, the diffusion of the crystal violet-safranin staining is inhibited, so the bacteria remain stained. Eubacteria merupakan kelompok. Organel Sel Organel sel : suatu struktur di dalam sitoplasma yang mempunyai tugas khusus Organel sel : suatu struktur di dalam sitoplasma yang mempunyai. Bakteri merupakan organisme uniseluller yang. These are characteristics of living organisms All living things are made of cells.

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This is diplococccus 15 A Cluster of cells is referred to as: Staphylo….

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Kami berharap bahwa Anda menikmati presentasi ini. Untuk men-download , silahkan rekomendasi presentasi ini kepada teman-teman Anda dalam jaringan sosial. Tombol yang haris diklik terletak di bawah posting ini. Terima kasih. Diterbitkan oleh Ivan Widjaja Telah diubah "4 tahun yang lalu. This kingdom is subdivided into two kingdoms: Archaebacteria Eubacteria.

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