ESTUDIO ENKID PDF

Background and objective: Obesity is a chronic disease with a complex multifactorial nature which typically begins during childhood and adolescence. It represents one of today's most critical and escalating public health concerns for this segment of the population. The lack of obesity prevalence data at national level prompted the enKid Study , which was designed to evaluate the food habits and nutritional status of Spanish children and youth. Height and weight measurements were carried out using standard procedures and equipment. Results: The prevalence of obesity in Spain is

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Objective : To analyse prevailing food patterns among Spanish children and young people and their relationship to sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Interventions : Food consumption was assessed by means of a h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Sociodemographic and lifestyle related data were collected by specially designed questionnaires, previously pretested and validated. All the information was collected during a personal interview by trained dietitians. Data collection: May —April Results : Average consumption of fruit and vegetables was low.

Factor analysis identified five main components of dietary patterns. Conclusion : Results from this study highlight the importance of enhancing school-based and community-based actions to promote healthy eating and physical activity addressed to children and young people.

Many different factors influence food habits in a complex interactive way. Parents and the family environment are very important for young children to learn and develop food preferences and eating habits in a dual way Story et al, On the one hand as providers of the food children eat, family members are also relevant role models and establish rules and norms related to food and eating practices.

As children grow and start school, teachers, peers and other people at school together with the media and social leaders become more important. Progressively children are more independent and start making their own food choices. Different models and theories have been suggested to explain interactions among influencing factors on food habits Story et al, Availability and access to a variety of foods have been identified as key elements in this context together with psychological processes at individual and social levels and other factors that influence food choices.

However, availability and access to food are influenced by a number of other situations; among them socioeconomical aspects and prevailing lifestyles Roos et al, This paper examines the influence of socioeconomical determinants and lifestyles on usual food patterns of Spanish children and young people. The sample was drafted by a multiple step sampling procedure based on the population census. The study protocol included socioeconomical family background level of education of the mother and the father classified as low, medium, high; occupation of mother and father.

Additionally, a item food frequency questionnaire was completed for each participant along questions on dietary habits; consumption of supplements; physical activity on weekdays as well as leisure time; tobacco and alcohol use; food preferences and a questionnaire on basic information regarding food and nutrition Serra-Majem, Aranceta et al, Anthropometrical measurements were assessed on each individual following standard protocols Serra-Majem, Ribas et al, All questionnaires were specially designed for the study and were previously pretested and validated.

The study protocol was approved by the ethical committee of the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition. Parent consent was requested for each participant. All field workers followed a training period prior to data collection. Field work was completed between May and April In this paper, the influence of socioeconomic factors, overweight and physical activity on usual food patterns estimated by the food frequency questionnaire is analysed.

Inadequate consumption by food group was calculated by comparison to Spanish dietary recommendations. Factor analysis by the principal components method and varimax rotation was run on z -scored transformed food consumption variables in order to identify salient food patterns in the group.

Multiple linear regression models were fitted following a stepwise forward method to assess the relationship between selected factors, sociodemiographic and lifestyles variables on two different levels; firstly sociodemographic factors age, gender, parental education and occupation, geographical region and rural—urban distribution as background variables and then lifestyle factors leisure time physical activity, sport practices, overweight.

Data analysis was performed using SPSS v Table 1 shows sociodemographic characteristics of the study sample and prevalence of inadequate consumption for dairy products, fruit and vegetables across categories. Average consumption of vegetables was low. Food groups factor loading and percent of variance explained by each factor are shown in Table 2. Level of education of the mother was inversely associated in both the age groups. Gender could not enter in either models.

Increasing age was more important for the younger group. Girls were more likely to follow this pattern in both the age groups, while children and young people whose mother had achieved a lower level of education were less likely.

The enKid study has contributed relevant cross-sectional data on nutrition, lifestyles and health on Spanish children and young people. According to the results of the enKid study, children and young people from a lower socioeconomic background and those whose mothers had a lower level of education showed a higher consumption of sweets and high-fat bakery products as well as sugary and salted snacks, but lower vegetables intake.

Similar patterns have been described in other studies in US children and adolescents Nicklas, ; Lowry et al, ; Neumark-Sztainer et al, ; Munoz et al, ; Zive et al, , in the School Health Promotion Survey carried out in 76 Finnish Secondary school students in — Roos et al, and other European studies Lien et al, Several studies carried out in the USA suggest that sugary soft drinks are replacing milk in the diet of children and adolescents Neumark-Sztainer et al.

The enKid study shows that Factor analysis is a useful technique to summarise food patterns and relate them to different socioeconomical and lifestyle factors. However, it must be acknowledged the method is data-specific, thus the pattern and their associations extracted in one study population may not be reproduced in other populations Schulze et al, This kind of analysis can facilitate the development of interventions aimed at modifying eating patterns, rather than specific components of the diet Mishra et al, Regression models fitted for the last two could not explain the high proportion of variance in the patterns.

However, both cases contributed to identifying useful predictors in this population, which are valuable to design interventions. This fact is particularly relevant, since there is some evidence suggesting that food habits and lifestyles that persist during adolescence are more likely to track into adulthood Klepp, The CARDIAC study in the USA showed that children who often consumed fatty snacks or had their evening meal away from home had higher intakes of total fat and saturated fats, thus showing a higher risk dietary profile Gonzales et al, Other studies have described an association between a higher level of physical activity and adherence to healthier dietary pattern.

Conversely, young single males with a sedentary lifestyle were more likely to follow a Western dietary pattern Sanchez-Villegas et al, Lower education and socioeconomical family background is associated with less healthier dietary patterns.

Results from this study highlight the importance of enhancing school-based and community-based actions to promote healthy eating and physical activity addressed to children and young people Aranceta, Specific actions involving families and increased opportunities to easier healthy food choices will be required.

Barcelona: Masson. Google Scholar. Pediatrics Suppl , — Health 18 , 27— Klepp KI : Twelve year follow-up of a school-based health education programme. The Oslo Youth Study. Public Health 4 , — Public Health Nutr. JAMA , — Health 72 , — Lytle LA : Nutritional issues for adolescents. Pediatrics , — Estudio enKid , pp 1— Barcelona: Masson S.

Estudio enKid. Download references. Correspondence to J Aranceta. Reprints and Permissions. Aranceta, J. Sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants of food patterns in Spanish children and adolescents: the enKid study.

Download citation. Published : 28 August Issue Date : 01 September Childhood Obesity British Journal of Nutrition Journal of Dentistry Nutrients Public Health Nutrition Advanced search.

Skip to main content. Register your interest. Abstract Objective : To analyse prevailing food patterns among Spanish children and young people and their relationship to sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Design : Cross-sectional population survey. Setting : Population study. Data were collected at participants' home addresses. Sponsorship : This study was supported by Kellogg's Spain. Access through your institution. Buy or subscribe. Download PDF.

Table 1 Distribution of the study sample and prevalence of inadequate consumption of dairy products, fruit and vegetables by selected sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors Full size table.

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