A hydrosalpinx is a condition that occurs when the fallopian tube is blocked and fills with serous or clear fluid near the ovary distal to the uterus. The blocked tube may become substantially distended giving the tube a characteristic sausage-like or retort-like shape. The condition is often bilateral and the affected tubes may reach several centimeters in diameter. The blocked tubes cause infertility. A fallopian tube filled with blood is a hematosalpinx , and with pus a pyosalpinx. Symptoms can vary.
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If the fluid is infected, i. Patients may be asymptomatic or may present with pelvic pain or infertility. One or both fallopian tubes may be affected. On rare occasions, transient distention of the fallopian tubes occurs because of retrograde passage of blood from the uterus without complete distal occlusion. Longitudinal folds that are present in a normal fallopian tube may become thickened in the presence of a hydrosalpinx. These folds are pathognomonic of a hydrosalpinx.
Indentations on the opposite sides of the wall is referred to as the waist sign which is a strong predictor of hydrosalpinx. The waist sign in combination with a tubular-shaped cystic mass has been found to be pathognomonic of a hydrosalpinx 9.
Incomplete septa may also give a " beads on a string " sign. Sometimes the dilated fallopian tube may not show longitudinal folds. If the elongated nature of these folds is not noted, they may be mistaken for mural nodules of an ovarian cystic mass. A significantly scarred hydrosalpinx may present as a multilocular cystic mass with multiple septa often incomplete creating multiple compartments. These septa are generally incomplete, and the compartments can be connected.
However, with more pronounced scarring, differentiation from an ovarian mass may not be possible. A hydrosalpinx may be seen incidentally at CT as a fluid-attenuation tubular adnexal structure, separate from the ovary. A simple hydrosalpinx is not accompanied by pelvic inflammation. The tubal wall may enhance following contrast. MR imaging is the modality of choice for the characterization and localization of adnexal masses that are inadequately evaluated with ultrasound.
A dilated fallopian tube is interposed between the uterus and ovary and demonstrates fluid signal intensity. Incomplete septa or folds can be seen. The mucosal plicae are usually effaced, and the tube wall is uniformly smooth and thin. Will classically show a dilated fallopian tube, filling with contrast and with absence of free spillage. Please Note: You can also scroll through stacks with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keys.
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Rezvani M, Shaaban AM. Fallopian tube disease in the nonpregnant patient. Edit article Share article View revision history Report problem with Article. URL of Article. Article information. System: Gynaecology. Tags: gynaecology , ultrasound , pelvic mri , chronic pelvic pain. Synonyms or Alternate Spellings: Hydrosalpinges. Support Radiopaedia and see fewer ads. Cases and figures. Case 2: post hysterectomy Case 2: post hysterectomy.
Case 3 Case 3. Case 4: post hysterectomy Case 4: post hysterectomy. Case 5: on right Case 5: on right. Case 6: bilateral Case 6: bilateral. Case 7: bilateral Case 7: bilateral. Case 9: with history of previous tubal ligation Case 9: with history of previous tubal ligation. Case 10 Case Case 11 Case Case 12 Case Case unilateral hydrosalpinx - left Case unilateral hydrosalpinx - left.
Case bilateral Case bilateral. Case unilateral hydrosalpinx - right Case unilateral hydrosalpinx - right. Case right sided hydrosalpinx Case right sided hydrosalpinx. Loading more images Close Please Note: You can also scroll through stacks with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keys.
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Current management of tubal infertility: from hysterosalpingography to ultrasonography and surgery
Brought to you by. Tentugal 1 , T. Cunha 2 , A. Learning objectives To illustrate the radiologic spectrum of fallopian tube carcinoma.
Fallopian tube carcinoma: pearls and pitfalls
This condition is often bilateral, and even when hydrosalpinx affects just one tube, the other one tends to be abnormal at some point as well. Although a large number of patients with hydrosalpinx are asymptomatic in most cases this is an incidental finding , hydrosalpinx is characterized by producing:. Hydrosalpinx is often caused by chronic infections of the fallopian tubes. In most cases these are caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea or chlamydia, which may go undetected for years, slowly damaging the tubes. Transvaginal ultrasound. This easy-to-perform procedure allows the specialist to observe the presence of liquid inside the tubes. Hysterosalpingography HSG.
Rechsteiner 1. Rodrigues 1. During a research visit for tissue collection at an abattoir located in Pelotas, Brazil, one female genital tract showed both enlarged oviducts. The reproductive tract was collected and analyzed. Occluded uterine tubes and an increase in the organ volume due to the large amount of fluid in the organ lumen were the macroscopic findings.
If the fluid is infected, i. Patients may be asymptomatic or may present with pelvic pain or infertility. One or both fallopian tubes may be affected. On rare occasions, transient distention of the fallopian tubes occurs because of retrograde passage of blood from the uterus without complete distal occlusion.