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Electronic word-of-mouth eWOM communication generates content that constitutes an important source of information for users. Numerous researches have shown that the content of other users is more credible and influential than the content generated by the brand. The development of new technologies has brought about important changes in this process of interpersonal influence.
However, studies analyzing the eWOM communication process are insufficient. In this sense, the main objective of this study is to examine the relationship quality with eWOM communication. In addition, trust, satisfaction and commitment are identified as the main dimensions that form the relationship quality, and we analyze how these dimensions are related and how they influence the development of eWOM communication.
To achieve the objectives and the verification of the hypotheses, we developed a structural model with a multi-item scale of measurement adapted from previous studies. The questionnaire was filled out by different people to empirically test the model. The study sample included users of online travel websites. Findings confirm that the quality of the relationship influences the development of eWOM communication. In addition, we were able to verify that the dimensions of satisfaction and trust in travel websites are the most determinant, mainly because users are looking for an interpersonal communication process that satisfies their need and that the source is reliable.
The originality of this study is based on using the dimensions that best measure the quality of the relationship and analyzing how they influence the development of eWOM communication in an online context, very important aspects for the Spanish tourism sector. Key words: Electronic word-of-mouth communication; relationship quality; satisfaction; trust; commitment; relationship marketing.
This could be achieved through a mutual exchange and through the fulfillment of promises. This definition was accepted by most international academics of the discipline, including Harker , who, based on the seven categories of relationship marketing i. It has been nearly 30 years since Leonard Berry used the concept of relationship marketing for the first time and, ever since, researchers have tried to identify the main areas of study covered by the term.
In their paper research, Eiriz and Wilson tried to explain the axiomatic connections between the main areas, which, once focused not just individually but also collectively, allowed them to distinguish the three following sections on relationship marketing:.
First, the study of rationality to create, develop, maintain and finish relationships. Here, it is crucial to clarify the concept of relation , as well as the typology of those relations depicted in relationship marketing, and to differentiate them from those that are not relations. Second, the identification of the processes on which the relations are based, developed, maintained and, eventually, finished.
At this point, it is of paramount importance to shape an explanation that includes the main related variables, such as trust, commitment, adaptation, uncertainty, dependency, and reciprocity. Third, the analysis of the suitable structures to manage those processes. It entails understanding how the companies are organized, how the networks are managed and which management structures are more or less useful. Taking this into account, we will approach our research focusing on this area and pose our model accordingly Sarmiento-Guede, The consequences of the relationship quality refer to how the concept at issue is connected with other concepts.
In the existing literature, we have ascertained how the consequences vary depending on the context, which, according to Athanasopoulou , can be classified into three main categories:. The first category comprises businesses, services, and channel efficiency in different ways, including the efficiency of the purchase, the utilization of market research, the supply chain performance, the throughput of the exports, the efficiency of the sales, the quality of the service, and the increased sales or the increased business.
The second category includes relational benefits and the anticipation of future interaction; the length of the relation in time; the hoarding of clients; the social, economic, psychological and personalization benefits; the improvement on the relation and the continuity; aspects of voluntary relations, such as references, publicity or word-of-mouth WOM communication; the fidelity of the client; the future intentions with regard to the relation; the less-opportunist behavior; the propensity to leave the relation; the real value or perceived value for both parts.
This phenomenon is due to the increasing number of consumers expressing their opinion, either positive or negative, about products, services or brands. This new way of WOM communication has received, during the last years, much attention from researchers. Users used to have a passive role not that long ago.
Actually, they used to simply surf the Internet and carry out electronic transactions, and therefore users did not contribute to online service development. However, the situation changed radically with the arrival of social media; thanks to its many formats e. Given this fact, we undertake the task of analyzing whether the quality of the relation has a positive effect on the online environments of WOM communication. As a result, we formulate the following hypothesis in order to analyze the effects of online trust, online satisfaction and online commitment on eWOM communication:.
H1 Online satisfaction has a positive effect on eWOM communication. The methodology we used on this research is a quantitative analysis. The scenario we selected is the online touristic sector. To verify the abovementioned hypothesis, we used personal surveys in the form of questionnaires to gather information from a sample of 32, students from public and private universities from the Madrid Autonomous Community. The data gathering process took place from October 20 to 24 of For more technical data on the survey technique, please see Figure 1 and Table 1 below.
Source: Own elaboration. The questionnaire consists of 17 questions related to the different touristic service websites i. It included three differentiated paragraphs: The first one was a filter question to help us validate the research; the second paragraph was related to the dimension of the investigation i. The survey was answered by people, with a sampling error of 4. The convenience of the questionnaire was validated beforehand with a pre-test, based on a small group of people The concept of e-Relationship quality emerges from the theory and research in the field of relationship marketing with the goal of strengthening the relations and creating customer loyalty bonding.
Relationship quality has been studied in depth. Authors such as Ulaga and Eggert and Athanasopoulou consider relationship quality as a superior-order construct consisting of several components or dimensions. Despite the lack of agreement between researchers, the dimensions of trust, commitment and satisfaction prevail in most contexts and researches.
Therefore, these three dimensions trust, satisfaction, and commitment , posed to define relationship quality as a multidimensional construct, could be considered as the most suitable for the current research Sarmiento Guede, This quote we just mentioned comes from an expert researcher on satisfaction and illustrates accurately the challenge of defining that concept.
It is a judgment about a characteristic of the product or service, or the product or service itself, which pleases the customer in relation to the action of consuming. When it comes to online services, the P2P interaction is replaced by Person-Computer interaction, and therefore this change could require different approaches for measuring satisfaction, as the online consumer is a buyer of products or services and, at the same time, a computer user.
Online consumers cannot use their five senses for their decision-making process, but they face limited representations as pictures, videos, or text reviews. Therefore, you measure the intensity of the satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the online experience.
Aiming to understand online trust, we adopt the definition of offline trust in order to have a common base, seeing as it has been studied in multiple fields.
In the researches about buyer-seller relations, offline trust works as a dimension that evolves throughout time, and it is based on the observation of the honesty, the reliability, the kindness and the trust of an agent Ganesan, Once we have defined offline trust , we can focus on the digital context in order to understand online trust or the trust on the website, and then we will see the notorious difference, as the object of the online trust is the website, Internet or the technology. We have to translate the business-client interaction to the user-website interactivity and consumers will develop their perceptions of the business according to that interactivity.
The better the impression the consumer has of the website, the more he accepts the vulnerability, and therefore he will gain trust towards that website. Electronic trust is developed when consumers have positive impressions on the website when it comes to ecommerce, and so they accept the vulnerability.
The commitment has always been a key element in relationship marketing, specifically when talking about relationship quality. As proof, it has been demonstrated throughout marketing literature that both trust and satisfaction are precedents to the commitment.
Mukherjee and Nath understood online commitment as the natural association towards the website, which is similar to the affective bond at the offline context. In that research, they suggested that online trust affects online commitment directly and that it has a positive impact on behavioral intentions WOM communication, purchase intent, and continuous interaction. Speaking of which, Eastlick, Lotz, and Warrington also suggested that online trust had a positive effect on online commitment and, consequently, on the online purchase intent in B2C Business to Consumer.
We believe that these researches provide proof of the relationship between online trust, online commitment, and behavioral intentions. Mukherjee and Nath conclude by stating that satisfaction with a website will affect both online trust and online commitment, as they are correlated.
WOM communication has been the target of multiple researches for decades. Before cyberspace existed, authors such as Katz and Lazarsfeld , Brooks , Bearden and Etzel , and Rogers looked into the concept as the oral communication between people, where the receptor perceives the message as non-commercial about a brand, product or service Arndt, These two reasons soon drew the attention of researchers and of marketing professionals, which led to results that are available for everyone.
As a result, there are two trends in the researches made on eWOM communication:. It is obvious that eWOM communication is a recent phenomenon of investigation and has not been fully defined yet due to a lack of consensus between marketing and communication experts, among other reasons.
Some authors like Hennig-Thurau, Gwinner, Walsh, and Gremier understand it as informal communication throughout the internet. We observe that the definition refers to multiple transmitters and receivers, which poses a problem. By transmitters and receivers , on the other hand, Hennig-Thurau, Gwinner, Walsh, and Gremier mean any potential, current or previous customer.
They adduced that the conceptualization was too static and did not match with the interactive exchange of information that eWOM offers. It is very different from those concepts, though, seeing as eWOM is an interactive process that includes numerous elements.
Given these evident differences, as we will point out below, and taking into account the researches of Lee and Youn and Breazeale , we identified a series of aspects that could help to differentiate these two concepts electronic and non-electronic WOM :.
Indeed, according to Pollach , the digital context has many platforms i. Furthermore, as we mentioned before, WOM takes place in a physical situation, face to face, where agents share information about a product, service, brand or organization. Internet and, in particular, social media, offers consumers the opportunity to exchange information.
In this sense, electronic word of mouth works as a process of social influence in which users experience changes in their attitudes and behaviors as a result of interacting with other users. Just as in the analogical context, the digital context has its own opinion leaders. Bronner and de Hoog define opinion leaders in digital context as e-fluentials. On this subject, Vilpponen, Winter, and Sundqvist state that opinion leaders have an important role when it comes to spreading innovation online.
Social media has enabled users to gain market power from the producers. The Internet emerges as the channel that drastically changed WOM. It has even eased indirect communications between anonymous people through different platforms that exist in the Internet i. Vilpponen, Winter, and Sundqvist state that eWOM is based on messages that are linked altogether, thus forming a web of webs.
As Dellarocas stated, users in virtual communities build up their own social networks with people they do not know and exchange with them opinions on products and brands. This process takes place in any virtual community where users do not establish a relationship most of the times, but they merely connect because of a common interest.
One of the main benefits that induce customers to use it is its long-range capability. Social media provides dynamic, interactive, multimedia and social platforms for the development of eWOM. In conclusion, users are able to read, reread and compare opinions filed about the products, services, brands or companies they are interested in.
In several occasions, eWOM electronic word of mouth takes place between unrelated people Dellarocas, , but thanks to the anonymity provided by online communication, users tend to lose their fear and share way more information, increasing the volume of eWOM.
As a result, the chances of finding other users with experience on the service, product, brand or company at issue are remarkably increased.
Users tend to fall back on friends, family and influencers with great online reputation.
La Comunicación en las Organizaciones
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